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Background Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Methods Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from through for 15 young women aged 12—18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. Conclusions Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services.
Dating, Sex, and Schooling in Urban Kenya
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Table Kenya’s Population by Age and Sex, 19(Population in primary school enrollment rate increased to percent (the enrollment rate is greater urban Kenya, and between the slums and other areas (Table ).
YES Single-sex classrooms can make it easier for teachers to match their instructional style to the behavioral characteristics of the students. Girls seem to favor learning in a quieter setting in which they work together and come to a consensus. Boys tend to favor a setting that is more competitive, physically active, and louder. Early research shows that girls reap the most benefits from being together for math and science.
They feel more comfortable about their abilities without worrying about how they appear to boys, and they have more opportunity to participate in class discussions. Boys, who are typically more confident in math and science, dominate discussions, and teachers tend to call on boys more often. Recent research shows that boys also benefit from single-sex classes. Of course, not all girls and boys are going to be comfortable in single-sex classrooms, so it would have to be voluntary enrollment.
Perhaps the opposite gender could be a distraction for students in the classroom, but by grouping students by gender, we lose important elements of true education. In a diverse classroom, there are countless questions, different perspectives, and a variety of interests, which all add to the excitement of learning. Our students have much to contribute to each other, and students of all ages benefit from being engaged in activities and learning in the company of the opposite sex. In the classroom, learning experiences need to resemble real-world life experiences.
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Completion of secondary school is increasingly viewed as a desirable life goal for young men and women in urban Kenya. Yet achieving this goal often conflicts with other key transitions to adulthood, such as becoming sexually active, marrying, having children, and finding employment. Drawing upon exceptionally rich life-history calendar data from young people in Kisumu, Kenya, we explore how the timing and sequencing of key transitions affects the likelihood of secondary school completion.
Conversely, we also examine how school enrollment and performance affect the timing of sexual initiation. For men, however, romantic and sexual partnerships have no impact on schooling unless a partner becomes pregnant. Instead, paid employment appears to be least compatible with continued education. As adolescents shift into adulthood between the ages of 15 and 24, they typically undergo a series of transitions that include completing school, finding a job, becoming sexually active, marrying, and having children.
These transitions are not independent events; rather, they are dependent on the success or failure of prior transitions. Thus, the order and timing of these events matter. To ensure successful transitions, many societies proscribe norms for the proper sequencing of these events. The order and timing of key transitions in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Kenya, however, have been disrupted by recent social changes, particularly with regard to education and marriage National Research Council and Institute of Medicine
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Background Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Methods Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from through for 15 young women aged 12—18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time.
We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday.
Heroes have traveled to cities across the United States to meet with coercion for child sex trafficking; and to stop penalizing victims for unlawful streets as part of their studies in Quranic schools, called services to trafficking victims and survivors, building Kenya’s victim methods in court to date.
The country was a de facto one-party state from until , after which time the ruling Kenya African National Union KANU changed the constitution to make itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in and , which were marred by violence and fraud. President MOI stepped down in December following fair and peaceful elections.
The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August , Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and devolved power and resources to 47 newly created counties.
Dating, Sex, and Schooling in Urban Kenya
Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health SRH challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15—22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.
We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in — In total, young women aged 15—22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2.
Kenya officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, the Cushites Among the cities that line the Kenyan coast is the City of Malindi. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling, and government.
Email: Password:. Sign in. In this paper we examine descriptively the relationships between completed secondary education and social, informational, and economic adulthood outcomes of 15—24 year old males and females in Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda. We find that completing secondary education is associated with higher media access and somewhat better health related knowledge. However we also find that completing secondary education is not necessarily associated with a greater sense of agency within the family, disapproval of domestic violence against women and preference for female children.
Importantly we find that those with completed secondary education are not necessarily more likely to be employed than those without. Chudgar, A.
Dating, sex, and schooling in urban Kenya.
A dozen miles from downtown Houston, cars inch down an industrial side street and drivers idle by a cluster of young women bathed in streetlight, brokering primal transactions. A middle-aged woman in stilettos and a tight-fitting shirt stretched down to her thighs crosses a feeder road on a weekday morning, flicking her tongue suggestively at commuters stopped at the light.
A few blocks away, tenants tell the building manager they’ve seen strangers having sex outside their doorways, in their complex’s laundry room and inside Range Rovers in the gated parking lot. A kindergartner and first grader wonder aloud on their walk to school about the ladies standing around with their privates showing. These scenes might raise eyebrows in sprawling suburbs and well-heeled city districts, but they are ordinary and unremarkable to shopkeepers and apartment dwellers in this urban patch on the southwest outskirts of the city.
With a population of more than Kisumu City is the third largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret. According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, the Cushites first settled in the lowlands of Kenya between 3, and 1, BC, a phase referred to as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic.
Nilotic -speaking pastoralists ancestral to Kenya’s Nilotic speakers started migrating from present-day southern Sudan into Kenya around BC. Modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in and the subsequent Kenya Colony , which began in Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution , which began in , and the subsequent declaration of independence in After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The current constitution was adopted in to replace the independence constitution.
Dating sex and schooling in urban kenya
Metrics details. Age disparities in sexual relationships have been proposed as a key risk factor for HIV transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence remains inconclusive. The SIHR study, a cluster randomised trial of a cash transfer programme in Malawi, found that young women in the intervention groups were less likely to have had a sexual partner aged 25 or older, and less likely to test positive for HIV and HSV-2 at follow-up compared to control groups. We examined the hypotheses that girls in the intervention groups had smaller age differences than control groups and that large age differences were associated with relationship-level HIV transmission risk factors: inconsistent condom use, sex frequency, and relationship duration.
We investigated the effects of study arm, trial stage and participant age on age differences in sexual relationships using a linear mixed-effects model. Cumulative-link mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of relationship age difference on condom use and sex frequency, and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effect of relationship age difference on relationship duration.
their parents or care givers about sex, while 41% of parents stated they would The schools had rural and urban representation; 2 in the urban area, 1 in The number of students (n=) who reported that they were dating.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Clark and R. Clark , R. Mathur Published Medicine, Psychology Studies in family planning. Completion of secondary school is increasingly viewed as a desirable life goal for young men and women in urban Kenya.
Yet achieving this goal often conflicts with other key transitions to adulthood, such as becoming sexually active, marrying, having children, and finding employment. View on PubMed. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper.
Co-ed vs. Single Sex Schools
But when it comes to serious lifelong relationships, new research suggests, millennials proceed with caution. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist who studies romance and a consultant to the dating site Match. Young adults are not only marrying and having children later in life than previous generations, but taking more time to get to know each other before they tie the knot.
Indeed, some spend the better part of a decade as friends or romantic partners before marrying, according to new research by eHarmony, another online dating site. The eHarmony report on relationships found that American couples aged 25 to 34 knew each other for an average of six and a half years before marrying, compared with an average of five years for all other age groups.
Transactional sex, the casual exchange of sexual favors for money or gifts, has been associated with negative outcomes and health risks, particularly among youth. This global review of the evidence explores trends of buying and selling sex among the general population of male and female youth across 28 countries. It compares the differences and similarities in prevalence rates between genders male versus female , sex trading activities selling versus buying , and country income groups high-income versus low- and middle-income countries and examines the relationships and situations surrounding transactional sex, and its correlates.
Gender disaggregated data suggests that boys are more likely than girls to sell sex in high-income countries while the opposite seems to be true in low- and middle-income countries. The findings suggest that initial contact between sellers and buyers is most often established through friends, acquaintances, and dating websites. Money is the most commonly used form of compensation. Correlates of selling sex include involvement in other risky sexual behaviors, substance use, infection with sexually transmitted diseases, mental health problems, family break-up, and a history of victimization.
No or mixed relations have been found with socioeconomic and educational status.